Tsunami, Earthquakes, Hurricanes, Volcanic Eruptions and other Natural and Man-Made Hazards and Disasters - by Dr. George Pararas Carayannis

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Great Earthquake and Tsunami of 28 March 2005 in Sumatra, Indonesia

George Pararas-Carayannis

Copyright © 2005. All Rights Reserved

Introduction

A great earthquake with a Moment Magnitude 8.7 struck off the coast of Western Sumatra just south of the region where the great earthquake of 26 December 2004 (Moment Magnitude 9) triggered a devastating tsunami which left about 300,000 people dead or missing in nearly a dozen nations in Africa and Southeast Asia. A small tsunami was generated by this latest earthquake.

Origin Time - The earthquake occurred on Monday, 28 March 2005, at 16:09:36 UTC

Magnitude - The magnitude of the earthquake was variously reported by monitoring agencies as 8.7 and 8.5. The U.S. Geological Survey reported the former after initially putting the magnitude at 8.2; the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center the latter. The moment magnitude was later adjusted upward, to 8.7.

Epicenter of the 28 March 2005 Earthquake in relation to the epicenter of the 26 December 2004 and the region affected by the 1861 earthquake (Modified USGS graphic)

Epicenter - 2.3 NORTH 97.1 EAST LOCATION- NORTHERN SUMATERA (Sumatra) INDONESIA.

Earthquake Location - The epicenter was near the coast of northern Sumatra, about 125 miles west northwest of Sibolga, slightly southeast of the the 26 December 2004 earthquake's epicenter (nearly 160-kilometers), and along the same Sunda Trench fault line. However, this time, the epicenter was about 250 kilometers south-southeast of Banda Aceh.

Earthquake Focal Depth - The earthquake was shallow. Its focal depth was 32 kilometers -- which was about as deep as the 26 December 2004 event.

 


Felt Reports - There were strong earthquake motions in the immediate area that reportedly lasted for about three minutes. Tremors were felt in Indonesia and as far north as Bangkok, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore. According to residents in Singapore, the earthquake tremors were felt more severely than those of the 26 December 2004 earthquake.

Aftershocks - In the hours following the major earthquake a series of aftershocks struck the region - one with magnitude 6.7. The following day, Tuesday, at least 13 aftershocks between magnitudes 5.0 and 6.1 hit the region. The aftershocks are expected to continue for several days, weeks and months. Also, aftershocks from the 26 December 2004 earthquake continue to occur in the Andaman Sea and elsehwhere, but these can be distinguished by their latitude, which in further north (more than 3.0 North).

THE 28 MARCH 2005 EARTHQUAKE AND AFTERSHOCKS IN THE ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS AND IN THE NORTHERN SUMATRA (SUMATERA) REGION

(listing includes aftershocks believed to be associated with the 26 December 2004 earthquake - marked in blue)

Selected list of automatic GEOFON earthquake locations (as of 2005/03/30) from the GEOFON Extended Virtual Network - "GEVN" compiled by many real-time stations from partner networks in Europe and around the globe (IRIS GSN, USA).(GEOFON home page geofon_dc@gfz-potsdam.de)

 

Origin Time Epicenter Mag. Flinn-Engdahl Region Name Type


2005/03/30 08:27:49 4.0 N 97.9 E mb=4.6 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA L
2005/03/30 02:06:17 1.9 N 98.0 E mb=5.0 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA L
2005/03/30 01:58:32 2.6 N 98.3 E mb=4.8 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA L
2005/03/30 01:13:23 3.6 N 96.5 E mb=5.5 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA B
2005/03/29 20:41:38 3.1 N 97.5 E mb=5.1 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA L
2005/03/29 18:29:47 0.7 N 97.6 E mb=5.2 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA L
2005/03/29 18:06:54 5.5 N 96.9 E mb=5.1 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA L
2005/03/29 17:20:45 2.5 N 97.2 E mb=5.0 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA L
2005/03/29 16:21:48 6.7 N 97.1 E mb=5.0 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA L
2005/03/29 14:16:05 2.4 N 96.2 E mb=5.3 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA L
2005/03/29 12:55:58 5.9 N 95.1 E mb=5.1 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA L
2005/03/29 10:56:53 2.4 N 96.4 E mb=5.2 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA L
2005/03/29 06:16:15 1.5 N 98.7 E mb=5.2 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA L
2005/03/29 05:16:31 2.9 N 96.0 E mb=6.0 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATERA B
2005/03/29 04:19:00 1.4 N 97.7 E mb=5.3 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA L
2005/03/29 02:22:51 2.8 N 96.3 E mb=5.2 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA L
2005/03/29 00:56:00 1.8 N 97.7 E mb=5.1 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA L
2005/03/28 23:37:33 4.2 N 96.8 E mb=5.6 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA B
2005/03/28 23:13:01 0.5 N 96.5 E mb=5.9 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATERA B
2005/03/28 22:41:21 1.9 N 96.6 E mb=5.1 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATERA L
2005/03/28 21:34:11 1.9 N 97.2 E mb=5.2 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA L
2005/03/28 20:35:18 2.4 N 97.2 E mb=5.2 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA L
2005/03/28 20:23:27 2.0 N 97.1 E mb=5.2 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA L
2005/03/28 20:19:09 5.0 N 92.1 E mb=5.2 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATERA L
2005/03/28 20:06:32 1.0 N 95.2 E mb=5.2 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATERA L
2005/03/28 19:26:52 3.6 N 97.7 E mb=5.4 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA L
2005/03/28 19:02:19 1.6 N 98.0 E mb=6.0 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA B
2005/03/28 18:48:58 4.3 N 96.0 E mb=5.8 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA B
2005/03/28 18:30:49 2.2 N 97.1 E mb=6.4 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA B
2005/03/28 17:59:49 1.7 N 97.3 E mb=5.9 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA B
2005/03/28 17:39:56 0.1 N 95.6 E mb=5.5 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATERA L
2005/03/28 17:29:21 3.5 N 95.5 E mb=5.8 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATERA L
2005/03/28 17:11:44 0.2 S 95.9 E mb=5.9 SOUTHWEST OF SUMATERA, INDONESIA B
2005/03/28 17:03:30 0.5 N 95.6 E mb=6.2 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATERA B
2005/03/28 16:44:33 3.0 N 95.9 E mb=6.2 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATERA B
2005/03/28 16:38:43 1.5 N 97.3 E mb=6.4 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA B
2005/03/28 16:34:48 2.7 N 96.9 E mb=6.5 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA B
2005/03/28 16:09:33 2.2 N 97.0 E mb=6.5 NORTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA X
2005/03/27 06:09:22 4.0 N 94.7 E mb=5.1 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATERA L
2005/03/25 21:58:03 3.2 N 95.8 E mb=4.8 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATERA L
2005/03/25 03:27:18 8.0 N 94.1 E mb=4.8 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA

Crustal Displacements and Rupture

The distribution of the larger aftershocks indicates that the two tectonic plates (the Australian plate and the Burma subplate) slipped for about 160-200 km along their boundary. The aftershocks extend from 0.1 N to approximately 2.5 -3.0 degrees N). Therefore, the length of the overall rupture is estimated to be about 160 -200 km. - southeast of the rupture zone of the M9.0 earthquake of 26 December 2004.

The slippage occurred along a section of the great fault that parallels the Sunda Trench. The rupture started near the epicenter off the western coast of North Sumatra in the vicinity of Nias Island and progressed in a southeast direction along a preexisting major fault - the same segment that ruptured during the 1861 earthquake - and generated a locally destructive tsunami.

Map of Sumatra showing Simeulue Island to the west near the epicenter of the 26 December 2004 earthquake where uplift and elongation of the island were observed and reported. Note proximity to Lake Toba, the submerged caldera of the volcano which, about 75,000 years ago, was the site of the greatest volcanic explosion on earth in the last two million years. The explosion of Toba sent 2,800 cubic kilometers of material into the earth's atmosphere and caused major climatic changes

It has been estimated that this megathrust faulting along the Australian and Burma boundary has resulted in a major shift (with dimensions to be reported at a later time when the data is further analyzed). Partial vertical upward movement of the sea floor has occurred and a small tsunami was generated by the upthrusting motion. Field surveys on Simeulue and Nias islands, off Summatra - when completed - will provide better estimates of net crustal movements.

Earthquake Damage and Death Toll - Hundreds of people died as a result of this earthquake. Both Nias and Simeulue Islands were heavily damaged. Nias Island appeared to be the hardest hit, with lighter damage on nearby Simeulue and Banyak Islands. Extensive damage was caused by the quake in the city of Gunung Sitoli, on the island of Nias, where more than 200 buildings were destroyed and landslides closed the road to the main airport on Nias. The official death toll was initially given as 330 with 230 of those killed on Nias Island and 100 on Simeulue Island. The death toll has been revised and at least 600 have been confirmed as dead on Nias Island alone. It is expected that the death toll may eventually rise to 2,000 or even more. More than 140,000 people were left homeless in the area. A similar earthquake in the same area in 1861 killed several thousand people.

Tectonic Setting

The region where the great earthquake occurred on 28 March 2005, marks the seismic boundary formed by the movement of the Australian plate as it collides with the Burma subplate, which is part of the Eurasian plate. As previously reported the Indo-Australian tectonic plate may not be as coherent as previously believed. According to recent studies reported in the Earth and Planetary Science Letters (vol 133), it apears that the two plates have separated many million years ago and that the Australian plate is rotating in a counterclockwise direction, putting stress in the southern segment of the India plate, as well as on the western section of the Burma plate.

For millions of years the India tectonic plate has drifted and moved in a north/northeast direction, colliding with the Eurasian tectonic plate and forming the Himalayan mountains. As a result of such migration and collision with both the Eurasian and the Australian tectonic plates, the Indian plate's eastern boundary, as well as that of the Australian plate, is a diffuse zone of seismicity and deformation, characterized by extensive faulting and numerous large earthquakes.

The epicenters of both the 26 December 2004 and of the 28 March 2005 great earthquakes were near the triple point tectonic junction where major earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred in the past.

Previous major earthquakes have occurred further north, in the Andaman Sea and further South along the Sumatra, Java and Sunda segments of one of the earth's greatest fault zones, the subduction zone known as the Sunda Trench. This great trench extends for about 3,400 miles (5,500 kms) from Myanmar (Burma) south past Sumatra and Java and east toward Australia and the Lesser Sunda Islands, ending up near Timor. Slippage and plate subduction make this region highly seismic. The volcanoes of Krakatau, Tambora and Toba, well known for their violent eruptions, are byproducts of such tectonic interactions.

In addition to the Sunda Trench, the Sumatra fault is responsible for seismic activity on the Island of Sumatra. This is a strike-slip type of fault which extends along the entire length of the island.

The Burma plate encompasses the northwest portion of the island of Sumatra as well as the Andaman and the Nicobar Islands, which separate the Andaman Sea from the Indian Ocean. Further to the east, a divergent boundary separates the Burma plate from the Sunda plate.

More specifically, in the region off the west coast of northern Sumatra, the India plate is moving in a northeastward direction at about 5 to 5.5 cm per year relative to the Burma plate. It is assumed that the Australian plate is also moving toward the northeast direction and at the same rate (about 5 cm/year) against the Sunda plate to take the slack of the Indian plate's movement. However, it may be also rotating - at an unknown rate - in a counterclockwise direction.

The earthquake of March 28, 2005 was probably triggered by dynamic stress loading caused by the 26 December 2004 (M9.0) earthquake. The March 28 earthquake occurred - as a result of thrust faulting - on the boundary of the Australian and Sunda plates. It was caused by the release of stresses when the Australian plate subducted (and perhaps rotated) beneath the overriding Sunda plate. This interaction results in convergence at the Sunda Trench and involves oblique movement, which is part thrust-faulting along the plate boundary and involves both slip perpendicular to the trench axis, but also strike-slip faulting on the great Sumatra fault on the island - with the orientation of that slip also paralleling the great Sunda Trench.

Seismicity of the Region

Earthquakes originate at two principal tectonic sources in Indonesia. The major tectonic feature in the region is the Sunda Arc that extends approximately 5,600 km between the Andaman Islands in the northwest and the Banda Arc in the east. The Sunda Arc consists of three primary segments; the Sumatra segment, the Sunda Strait Segment and the Java Segment. These locations represent the area of greatest seismic exposure, with maximum earthquake magnitudes of up to 7.75 or even more on the Richter scale

The region where the 28 March 2005 earthquake occurred is a very active seismic area. Sumatra is in the center of one of the world's most seismically active regions. Earthquakes with magnitude greater than 8 struck Sumatra in 1797, 1833, and 1861. Earthquakes with magnitude greater than 7 struck offshore islands in 1881, 1935, 2000, and 2002.

British Geological Survey graphic of the seismicity of Southern Asia (note high concentration of earthquakes in the Andaman Sea and Northern Sumatra)

USGS Map of Past Earthquakes in the Region

Past Earthquakes in the Region

The most recent magnitude 8+ earthquake in the immediate region of this earthquake occurred in 1861. The 1861 earthquake generated a regionally destructive tsunami. Another earthquake of similar magnitude occurred further south in 1833.

1797: > 300 fatalities at Padang, M 8.4 EQ

1833: Numerous victims at W Sumatra, M 8.7 EQ

1843: Many fatalities at the coast of Nias Island

1861: 1000s fatalities at W coast of Sumatra, M 8.5 EQ

1881: India's eastern coast, M 7.9 EQ

1883: 36,000 fatalities on islands of Java & Sumatra, Krakatau explosion

1941: M ~7.7 Adaman Islands EQ ( tsunami poorly documented

Future Earthquakes, Volcanic Activity and Tsunamis in the Region

Great earthquakes do not occur with great frequency on earth. Great earthquakes occur on the average every ten years. In the 20th century there have been about a dozen earthquakes with magnitude greater than 8 that can be characterized as great.

For two great earthquakes to occur so close to each other in time and space - as the 26 December 2004 and the 28 March 2005 events - is very unusual. However, the northern segment of the great Sunda Trench is a seismically unusual region of the world, characterized by very active interaction between the Indian and Australian tectonic plates and the Burma and Sunda subplates of the Eurasian tectonic block.

Both of the recent earthquakes had their epicenters near the triple junction point where the Indian, Australian and Burma tectonic plates meet. Triple junction points of tectonic plates, particularly in areas of active subduction, are some of the most seismic areas of the world - capable of causing great earthquakes and tsunamis. The 1960 Great Chilean Earthquake and Tsunami originated near such a triple point tectonic junction.

Usually, when a great earthquake occurs, most of the stress is relieved and another great earthquake may not occur for many years in the same region. However, this is not always the case, as dynamic stress loading can accelerate the occurrence of another earthquake along an adjacent seismic zone. Sometimes the opposite occurs and the release of energy on one segment, may also release stress on an adjacent seismic fault. In this case it appears that the process was accelerated rather than delayed.

When the 26 December 2004 earthquake occurred, the Indian plate subducted the Burma plate and moved in a northeast direction. This movement caused dynamic transfer and loading of stress to both the Australian and Burma plates, immediately to the south, on the other side of the triple junction point. As a result of this load transfer, the Australian plate moved in relation to the Burma plate and probably rotated somewhat in a counterclockwise direction, causing the great earthquake of 28 March 2005. The block that moved was relatively small in comparison. Whether this movement will now stress load another segment of the great Sunda fault to the South and cause another earthquake soon, is not known. However, another great earthquake similar to that of 1833 (magnitude 8.7) along the south coast of the western Sumatra, will eventually occur. That particular earthquake generated a great tsunami. The waves may have been as much as 10 t0 15 meters on the western coast of Sumatra. Luckily, most of the energy from that tsunami was directed towards the unpopulated regions of the southwest Indian Ocean. When such an event will occur again, is not known. The only thing known with certainty is that it will occur in this region. Thus, a Coulomb stress transfer analysis, based on rupture parameters and the geometric distribution of aftershocks for both the 26 December 200 and the 28 March 2005 events, would help establish the space-time evolution of stresses and help determine both static and dynamic modifications that could possibly trigger future events along known faults in the region.

In summary, major earthquakes can be expected to occur further southeast along the central coast of Sumatra in the next few months. Any such major earthquake with magnitude greater than 7 could generate a tsunami in the region. Also, Talang volcano on Sumatra could experience a major eruption.

The Tsunami of 28 March 2005 in the Indian Ocean

 

Tsunami Warnings Issued

A small tsunami was generated by the earthquake. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center in Honolulu issued a Bulletin advising authorities to evacuate coastlines within 600 miles of the quake's epicentre. Authorities reacted more effectively this time in dealing with this earthquake. Thailand issued a tsunami warning for its west coast. Malaysia urged residents along parts of its west coast to evacuate. Sri Lanka also issued a warning and evacuated the eastern town of Trincomalee. India issued a preliminary warning for the Andaman and Nicobar islands. But no tsunamis were reported along Indonesia's island coasts, and India, Thailand and Malaysia canceled the tsunami warnings.

Small Tsunami Recorded - A small tsunami was recorded at tide stations. The Cocos Islands tide gauge near in the eastern Indian Ocean recorded a wave of 25 centimeters compared with the 33-centimeter wave recorded after the 26 December 2004 earthquake. A lostnt ed listed in the future.

Explanation for The Small Tsunami - Briefly, some of the reasons for the small tsunami from this great earthquake are the following:

The tectonic mechanism was different than that of the 26 December event. There was not as much vertical displacement of crustal material and there may have been some rotation of the Australian plate with less subduction and thrusting than the 26 December 2004 event. The rupture along the fault was shorter. The dimensions of the crustal block were smaller - about 160-200 km. The earthquake had more of a strike-slip component which was responsible mostly for horizontal movements of crustal material. The energy of this earthquake was one half to one fourth of the energy released by the 26 December 2004 earthquake. The orientation of faulting was such that maximum tsunami energy propagated toward unpopulated regions of the Southwest Indian Ocean.

Further Explanation for the Small Tsunami

Neotectonic processes along the convergence zone of the Indian and Australian tectonic plates with the Burma block along the island of Sumatra are controlled by three major fault systems, the most prominent being that of the subduction thrust which outcrops in the Sunda Trench. Three major domains of convergence exist along the Sunda Trench and the Mentawai trust fault which appear to control the source dimensions and extent of earthquake ruptures in this very active seismic region of Indonesia - and thus tsunami generation.

The dynamics of tsunami generation along western Sumatra are controlled by the shallow crustal effects resulting from processes of convergence, subduction, thrusting and extent of displacements of large magnitude, shallow focus, earthquakes. However, continuing subduction is evident by a Wadati-Benioff Zone (WBZ) that extends to depths of more than 200 km and by volcanic activity in the Barisan mountains, which lie in relatively close proximity to the Sumatran coast.

Neotectonics and major fault systems of the island of Sumatra (Re:John Milsom
University College London, UK)

The geometry of convergence, angle of subduction and existence of thick sedimentary layers, play an imprortant role on seismic source parameters, seismic rupture velocity, and on the dynamics of tsunami generation.

The destructive tsunami of 26 December 2004, occurred along a rupture in the Northern Domain of convergence but also extended considerably further north into the thick sedimentary regions of the Nicobar Fan and of the Andaman Sea - sediments ultimately accumulating because of Himalayan mountain erosion. Thus, the thickness of the sediments in the Nicobar Fan and the Andaman Sea may have played an important role in the destructiveness of this tsunami. Since the earthquake's rupture appears to have extended into the thick, compacted, sedimentary layers, a sequential bookshelf type of failure must have occurred. The slower earthquake rupture velocity in the northern half, along the Nicobar and Andaman Islands, strongly suggests such a bookshelf type of failure mechanism (similar to that of the 1992 earthquake and tsunami along Central America). This mechanism would account for the greater destructiveness of the tsunami generated along and beyond the Northern Domain of the tectonic convergence zone - which can also account for the size of the waves that struck Eastern Sumatra, Thailand and Malaysia to the east and southeast, and Sri Lanka and India to the west.

The reason why the 28 March 2005 great earthquake did not generate a large destructive tsunami can also be explained by the gometry of convergence off central Sumatra, near Nias Island, particularly the 450 km region known as Nias Elbow. The geometry of convergence in the Central Domain appears to be greatly affected by the subduction of the Investigator Fracture Zone and the 2 km high N-S trending Ridge (IFZ). Apparently the great earthquake of 28 March 2005, was triggered by stress transferrance of the 26 December 2004 earthquake, and ruptured the same section along the Central Domain of convergence as the 1861 earthquake. However, since the 1861 tsunami was much more destructive, we must conclude that either the rupture was not as long, or that it involved less thrusting and crustal displacement - which may also imply that not all the stress in the region has been released by this earthquake or by the 26 December 2004 event. Therfore, another earthquake further south could be triggered by possibly continuing stress transferrance.

Also, the geometry of convergence indicates that in the Southern Domain the Sunda Trench has a convex orientation towards the Indian Ocean and that it is not obstructed in any way by fracture zones and ridges. Therefore, ruptures of major earthquakes along this section - as in 1833 - can be expected to be much greater in length, dimensions and thus generate greater destructive tsunamis in the Indian Ocean - perhaps as large as that of 26 December 2004. Whether stress transferrance from either the 26 December 2004 or the 28 March 2005 earthquake can trigger another major earthquake further south in the Central or Southern Domains, is not known at this time. However, another great earthquake and tsunami, similar to the 1833 event, can be expected in the future.

Other significant historical tsunamis in the region

Historical tsunamis have not been properly documented for the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the West Sumatra region, the East and West Coasts of India, the southern coast of Pakistan or the Indian Ocean in general. For example, personal communication with residents of Simeulue Island indicated that a destructive tsunami occurred around 1907 for which there is no record. There may be several more events that have not been identified or properly documented. The following is only a partial list of major known tsunamis in the Indian Ocean Region. An investigation of additional historical tsunamis in the Indian Ocean is under way and a more complete list will be provided at this web site in the near future.

Directivity and height of the 28 March 2005 tsunami (Baybeko, Univ. of Frankfurt)

 

1797: A magnitude 8.4 earthquake near the central part of the western Sumatra generated a tsunami that flooded Padang. More than 300 were killed.


1833: A magnitude 8.7 earthquake near the south coast of the western Sumatra triggered a huge tsunami that flooded the southern part of western Sumatra. Numerous victims. No details.


1843: A tsunami that came from the southeast and flooded the coast of the Nias Island. Many fatalities reported.


1861: A magnitude 8.5 earthquake affected all the western coast of Sumatra. Several thousand fatalities.

1881: A magnitude 7.9 earthquake in the Andaman Island region generated a 1 m high tsunami on India's eastern coast.

1883: Krakatau explosion. About 36,500 fatalities, primarily on the islands of Java and Sumatra.

1941: A magnitude ~7.7 Adaman Islands earthquake. A tsunami occurred, however, no official records exist.

LINKS TO PAST AND RECENT EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI DISASTERS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA AND THE SOUTHWEST PACIFIC OCEAN

THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI OF 26 DECEMBER 2004 IN THE INDIAN OCEAN

Tsunamis of the Indian Ocean

INDONESIA 1883 : Near and Far-Field Effects of Tsunamis Generated by the Paroxysmal Eruptions, Explosions, Caldera Collapses and Slope Failures of the Krakatau Volcano in Indonesia, on August 26-27, 1883

INDIA 2002 - The Earthquake of January 25, 2001 in India

PAPUA NEW GUINEA 1998 - he Tsunami of 17 July 1998 in Papua -New Guinea

INDONESIA 1977 : The Earthquake and Tsunami of August 19, 1977

INDONESIA 1883 : The Great Tsunami of August 26, 1883 from the Explosion of the Krakatau Volcano ("Krakatoa")

PILIPPINES 1976 - The Earthquake and Tsunami of August 16, 1976 , in the Philippine Islands

VANUATU 1999 - The Earthquake and Tsunami of November 26, 1999 in Vanuatu

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