Tsunami, Earthquakes, Hurricanes, Volcanic Eruptions and other Natural and Man-Made Hazards and Disasters - by Dr. George Pararas Carayannis

Tsunami, Earthquakes, Hurricanes, Volcanic Eruptions, Climate Change and other Natural and Man-Made Hazards and Disasters - Disaster Archaeology, Other Miscellaneous Writings

Google

Risk Assessment of Tsunamis from Volcanic Sources - Forecasting and Preparedness for the Caribbean Region

George Pararas-Carayannis

Excerpts from presentation at the 2004 National Science Foundation Tsunami Workshop in San Juan, Puerto Rico , and from recent paper published in the Journal of Tsunami Hazards, Volume 22, Number 2. 2004 http://www.STHJOURNAL.ORG

INTRODUCTION

Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the overlying plate. The inter-plate tectonic interaction and deformation along these marginal boundaries result in moderate seismic and volcanic events that can generate tsunamis by a number of different mechanisms.

The active geo-dynamic processes have created the Lesser Antilles, an arc of small islands with volcanoes characterized by both effusive and explosive activity. Eruption mechanisms of these Caribbean volcanoes are complex and often anomalous. Collapses of lava domes often precede major eruptions, which may vary in intensity from Strombolian to Plinian. Locally catastrophic, short-period tsunami-like waves can be generated directly by lateral, direct or channelized volcanic blast episodes, or in combination with collateral air pressure perturbations, nuess ardentes, pyroclastic flows, lahars, or cascading debris avalanches. Submarine volcanic caldera collapses can also generate local destructive tsunami waves.

Volcanoes of the Eastern Caribbean Island Arc (modified web graphic of West Indies University)

Volcanoes in the Eastern Caribbean Region have unstable flanks. Destructive local tsunamis may be generated from aerial and submarine volcanic edifice mass edifice flank failures, which may be triggered by volcanic episodes, lava dome collapses, or simply by gravitational instabilities. The present report evaluates volcanic mechanisms, resulting flank failure processes and their potential for tsunami generation. More specifically, the report evaluates recent volcanic eruption mechanisms of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, of Mt. Pelée on Martinique, of Soufriere on St. Vincent and of the Kick'em Jenny underwater volcano near Grenada and provides an overall risk assessment of tsunami generation from volcanic sources in the Caribbean region.

Assessment of Future Risks of Tsunamis from Volcanic Sources in the Caribbean Region - Forecasting and Preparedness

The historic record indicates that Caribbean volcanoes pose a serious threat for several islands in the region (Robertson1992, 1995). The1902 eruptions of Mt Pelée on Martinique and of La Soufrière on St Vincent, and the more recent eruptions of Soufriere Hills on Montserrat, and of Kick'em Jenny in Grenada increased awareness that tsunamis generated from volcanic sources represent an additional hazard that needs to be addressed individually for each of the region's active volcanoes. Fortunately - and in contrast to the unpredictability of tsunamis of seismic origin - tsunamis generated form volcanic sources can be forecasted for the Caribbean region and appropriate measures can be taken. Preparedness for the tsunami hazard should include the monitoring of precursory eruptive processes as ongoing presently (Sigurdsson 1981; Shepherd and Aspinall 1982; Shepherd 1989) but, additionally, studies of geomorphologies and flank instabilities of each individual volcano and the mapping of risk areas that can contribute to massive volcanic edifice failures ­ with or without a volcanic triggering event ­ and thus in the generation of destructive tsunami waves.

The 1976 eruption of La Soufrière on St Vincent island (Photograph by Richard Fiske)

Already, as a result of greater awareness and concerns about the threat of volcanic hazards in the Caribbean region, several scientific organizations have already established monitoring stations on several islands. For example, following the devastating 1902 eruption of La Soufrière volcano on St. Vincent Island, a surveillance program was initiated. In 1952, a Seismic Research Unit was established on the island and a sustained program of volcano monitoring was undertaken (Fiske and Shepherd. 1990). Similarly, following the 1995 eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano on the island of Montserrat, a monitoring program was established. Additionally, the Universities of Puerto Rico and of the West Indies have undertaken extensive monitoring functions and programs. Present volcano monitoring operations include routine measurements of geological, geophysical and geochemical parameters and assessments of precursory-to-an-eruption phenomena. With some small additional effort, these existing volcano monitoring programs in the Caribbean region can easily assess future risks for the collateral tsunami hazard, develop micro-zonation maps of potential tsunami hazard sites along the coast and help establish programs of tsunami preparedness for the public. The following sections summarize briefly the importance of monitoring some of the precursory-to-an-eruption phenomena as they relate to potential tsunami generation.

Micro-earthquake Activity: Routine monitoring of a volcano's micro-earthquake activity helps forecast eruptions (Hirn et al1987). For example, before a major eruption occurs on Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat, the increasing pressure within the volcano generates a flurry of micro-earthquakes, which are indicative of magma movement. When this activity peaks and the focus of micro earthquakes becomes shallower, it becomes evident that the pressure within the volcano has reached a critical phase and that a fairly imminent eruption can be expected. Such monitoring is presently in effect for several islands with active volcanoes.

Monitoring Lava Dome Formation and Rate of Growth: Measuring the swelling of the volcano with tilt meters and other geodetic and photogrammetric means may also indicate if there is intrusion by a lava dome, the dome's rate of growth, and its potential for collapse. Mature lava domes, which grow slowly, are usually non-explosive. Similarly non-explosive are post eruption lava domes, such as the felsic lava dome known as the Tower of Pelée - extruded in the waning stages of the 1902 eruption of Mt. Pelée on Martinique.

Example of a lava dome development at Mount St. Helens prior to the explosive 1983 eruption (USGS graphic)


However, younger, fast growing, pre-eruption extruded domes that contain lava which has not been completely degassed, may explode or collapse. The eruption and explosion of Mt. St. Helens in the State of Washington were preceded by the rapid development of a lava dome over a three-year period from 1980 to 1983. Also, a lava dome formed rapidly on the Soufriere Hills volcano's crater on Montserrat Island over a two-month period prior to the major eruption of 26 December 1997. The dome formation served as a natural warning for the residents of Plymouth to evacuate, thus there was no losses of life. Stations on several Caribbean islands with active volcanoes, routinely monitor lava dome formation and rates of growth.

Evaluation of Potential Lava Dome Collapses: The periodic explosion or gravitational collapses of the viscous masses of lava domes can sometimes generate deadly pyroclastic flows that can reach the sea and generate tsunami waves. Lava dome collapses were associated with the 1902 eruption and nuée ardente of Mt. Pelée on Martinique, the 1902 eruption of Soufriere on St. Vincent Island and the 1997, 1999 and 2003 eruptions, pyroclastic flows and debris avalanches of Soufriere Hills on Monteserrat Island ­ the latter generating significant tsunami waves along the southwestern coast of the island.

In view of the above, it is important to monitor changes of lava domes and their potential for collapses. Furthermore, since lava dome collapses, particularly near a volcanic summit may be followed by violent eruptions, pyroclastic flows and debris avalanches, the expected path of destruction and potential flank failure sites can be determined by careful evaluation of the local topography and geomorphology. Based on such assessments, coastal areas subject to the tsunami hazard could be identified, microzonation maps can be drawn and appropriate warning signs be posted for the protection of the public.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Historical tsunami events from volcanic sources in the Caribbean Region have been under-reported as the immensity of destruction from volcanic events has overshadowed them. Small scale flank failures are quite common for most of the active volcanoes in the Caribbean. Such volcanic sources have the potential of generating destructive local waves in confined bodies of water and in the near field environment of an open coast. Local tsunamis can also be generated by gravity-induced flank failures, even in the absence of eruptive triggering events. Heavy rains and earth tides appear to play a significant role in small scale flank failures of unstable volcanic slopes.

Pyroclastic flow from the 2003 eruption of Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, reaching the sea. ("Copyright Montserrat Volcano Observatory/Government of Montserrat and British Geological Survey; photo used by permission of the Director, MVO")

Tsunami or tsunami-like waves can be generated by a variety of volcanic mechanisms, pyroclastic flows, debris avalanches, and volcanic edifice mass failures and by aerial or submarine landslides. Impulsively generated waves from such complex source mechanisms behave non-linearly and change significantly away from the source, with varying near and far field effects and terminal run up heights. However the wave periods are short and range from 1-4 minutes at most. The heights of these waves attenuate rapidly with distance because of relatively smaller source dimensions and shorter wave periods and do not pose a significant danger at great distances from the source. Caribbean volcanoes and their associated flank failures can be forecasted with careful monitoring and programs of preparedness need to be established.

At the present time. the Soufriere Hills volcano on the island of Montserrat poses the greater threat of local tsunami generation in the Eastern Caribbean Region. Its eruptive activity in the last decade, the rapid rates of lava dome formations and growth and the associated collapses and eruptive style, indicate ongoing active volcanic processes that will continue for many years. Tsunamis can be expected in the near future from both pyroclastic flows reaching the sea and by flank collapses.

The historic record supports that Mt. Pelée on the island of Martinique will continue to pose a threat for a repeat of a Vulcanian-Plinian episode in the future. When this will happen is not known. However, given the sophistication of present monitoring programs, any future activity of the volcano will be properly forecasted and cautionary measures will be taken. Local tsunamis may be expected around the island by flank failures of unstable slopes, even in the absence of a triggering volcanic event.

Also, The historic record supports that the stratovolcano "La Soufrière" on the island of St. Vincent poses a very significant threat for renewed activity in the future. Given the fact that there is a lake at the summit, there is also a potential danger that even an eruption of moderate activity may cause a breach on the crater's rim and trigger a dangerous lahar which may be destructive and may even generate a local tsunami if it reaches the sea. Also the instability of La Soufrière flanks pose a threat of failures and of local tsunami generation ­ even in the absence of a volcanic eruption. Heavy rains, gravitational forces and earth tides may be significant triggering factors.

Kick them Jenny volcano will continue to rise towards the surface and eventually will form an island volcano. It is possible that its present rate of growth may be slowed down by cone collapses and subsidence. The dimensions of the volcano and the style of expected eruptions and intensities limit the size of tsunamis that can be generated from future events. A large violent eruption of the Kick'em Jenny volcano at the present depth of the summit, can be expected to generate waves with a probable maximum runup of about 3 meters in Northern Crenada and the Grenadines, and as much as 1-2 meters along the west coast of the Barbados, Trinidad, and St. Vincent. The wave heights along the nearest coastline of northern Bonaire and Venezuela may be up to 1 meter at the most. When the volcano breaks through the surface of the sea, the probable maximum runup of a tsunami from a major eruption could be as much as 4 meters on Northern Grenada and as much as 2 meters along the west coast of the Barbados, Trinidad, and St. Vincent.

REFERENCES AND ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

AAPG International Meeting,, 2003.Caribbean Plate Origin. Caribbean Tectonics, Barcelona, Spain, September 21-24.

Anderson, J., 1784. An account of Morne Garou, a mountain in the island of St. Vincent with a description of the volcano on its summit, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 125:32.

Anderson, T., 1903. Recent volcanic eruptions in the West Indies. The Geographical Journal.

Anderson, T., 1908. Report on the eruptions of the Soufrière in St. Vincent in 1902, and on a visit to Montagne Pelèe in Martinique - The changes in the district and the subsequent history of the volcanoes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Series A, 208 (Part II):275-352.

Anderson, T., and Flett S. J.,1903. Report on the eruption of the Soufrière of St. Vincent in 1902 and on a visit to Montagne Pelèe in Martinique. Part I. Royal Society Philosophical Transactions Series A-200:353-553.

Aspinall, W.P., 1973. Eruption of the Soufrière volcano on St. Vincent island, 1971-1972. Science 181:117-124.

Aspinall, W.P., H. Sigurdsson, and Shepherd. J.B.,1973. Eruption of the Soufriere volcano on St. Vincent island, 1971-19721. Science 181:117-124.

Aspinall, W.P., Sigurdsson, H., Shepherd, J.B., Almorales, H. and P.E. Baker. 1972. Eruption of the Soufrière Volcano on St. Vincent island, 1971-72. In Smithsonian Institute for Short-Lived Phenomena.

Baker, P.E., 1972. The Soufrière volcano, St. Vincent and its 1971-72 eruption. Journal of Earth Sciences, Leeds 8 (Pt. 2):205-217.

Barberi, F., Blong R. et al. 1990. Reducing volcanic disasters in the 1990's, Volcanol. Soc. Japan Bull., 35, 80

Barr, S., and J.L. Heffter. 1982. Meteorological analysis of the eruption of Soufrière in April 1979. Science 216:1109-1111.

Beer, T., 1974. Atmospheric Waves. Wiley, New York, 300 pp.

Brazier, S. A., Davis, N., Sigurdsson, H. , and R. S. J. Sparks. 1982. Fallout and deposition of volcanic ash during the 1979 explosive eruption of the Soufrière of St. Vincent. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 14 (3-4):335-359.

Brown, G.M., Holland, J.G., Sigurdsson, H., Tomblin, J. F. and R.J. Arculus. 1977. Geochemistry of the Lesser Antilles volcanic island arc. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 41:785-801.

Carey, S.N., and Sigurdsson H.. 1978. Deep-sea evidence for distribution of tephra from the mixed magma eruption of the Soufrière on St. Vincent, 1902: Ash turbidites and air fall. Geology 6:271-274.

DeGraff, J.V., 1988. Landslide hazards on St. Vincent and the Grenadines, West Indies. Washington, D.C.: Dept. Reg. Div., Organisation of American States.

Deplus, C., Le Friant, A., Boudon, G., Komorowski J. -C., Villemant, B., Harford, C., Segoufin, J., and Cheminee, J. -L., 2001. Submarine evidence for large-scale debris avalanches in the Lesser Antilles Arc, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 192, 2, 145­157.

Devill, S-C. 1867. Sur le tremblement de terre du 18 Novembre 1867 aux Antilles, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, 65, 1110­1114.

Earle, K.W. 1924. The Geology of St. Vincent and the neighbouring Grenadines. Kingstown: Geological Survey of the Windward & Leeward Islands.

ETDB/ATL 2002. Expert Tsunami Database for the Atlantics, Version 3.6 of March 15, 2002. Tsunami Laboratory, Novosibirsk, Russia.

Fisher, R.V., and Heiken, G., 1982. Mt. Pelee, Martinique; May 8 and 20, 1902, pyroclastic flows and surges: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 13, p. 339-371.

Fisher, R.V., Smith, A.L., and Roobol, M.J., 1980. Destruction of St. Pierre, Martinique by ash-cloud surges, May 8 and 20, 1902: Geology, v. 8, p. 472-476.

Fiske, R.S., and Sigurdsson, H., 1982. Soufriere volcano, St. Vincent: Observations of its 1979 eruption from the ground, aircraft, and satellites: Science, v. 216, p. 1105-1126.

Fiske, R. S., and J. B. Shepherd. 1990.12 Years of Ground-Tilt Measurements On the Soufrière of St- Vincent, 1977-1989. Bulletin of Volcanology 52 (3):227-241.

Flett, J.S. 1902. Note on a preliminary examination of the ash that fell on Barbados after the eruption at St. Vincent, West Indies. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 58:368-370.

Flett, J.S. 1908. Petrological notes on the products of the eruptions of May 1902, at the Soufriere in St. Vincent. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 208 (Series A):225-253.

Gisler, G., Weaver, R ., Mader C. and M. Gittings 2004. Two-Dimensional Simulations of Explosive Eruptions of Kick-em Jenny and other Submarine Volcanoes. Los Alamos National Laboratory. . NSF Caribbean Tsunami Workshop. Puerto Rico March 30-31, 2004

Graham, A. M., and M. F. Thirlwall. 1981. Petrology of the 1979 Eruption of Soufrière Volcano, St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 76 (3):336-342.

Hay, R.L. 1959. Formation of the crystal-rich glowing avalanche deposits of St. Vincent, B.W.I. Journal of Geology 67:540-562.

Heath, E., R. MacDonald, H. Belkin, C. Hawkesworth, and H. Sigurdsson. 1998..Magmagenesis at Soufrière Volcano, St Vincent, Lesser Antilles arc. Journal of Petrology 39 (10):1721-1764.

Heilprin, A., 1908. The eruption of Pelee: Philadelphia Geographic Society, 72 p.

Heinrich, F., Mangeney, A., Guibourg, S., and Roche, R. 1998. Simulation of water waves generated by a potential debris avalanche in Montserrat, Lesser Antilles, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 9, 3697­3700,

Heinrich, F., Guibourg, S., Mangeney, A., and Roche, R. 1999a. Numerical modelling of a landslide-generated tsunami following a potential explosion of the Montserrat Volcano, Phys. Chem. Earth (A), 24, 2, 163­168,

Heinrich, F., Roche, R., Mangeney, A., and Boudon, G. 1999b. Modeliser un raz de maree cree par un volcan, La Recherche, 318, 67­71,

Heinrich, F., Boudon, G., Komorowski, J. C., Sparks, R. S. J., Herd, R., and Voight, B. 2001. Numerical simulation of the December 1997 debris avalanche in Montserrat. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 13, 2529­2532.

Hirn, A., Girardin, N., Viode, J.-P., and Eschenbrenner, S., 1987. Shallow seismicity at Montagne Pelee volcano, Martinique, Lesser Antilles: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 49, p. 723-728.

Hooper, D. M. and Mattioli, G. S. 2001. Kinematic modelling of pyroclastic flows produced by gravitational dome collapse at Soufriere Hills. Natural Hazards, 23, 65­86.

Huppert, H. E., J. B. Shepherd, H. Sigurdsson, and R. S. J. Sparks. 1982. On Lava Dome Growth, With Application to the 1979 Lava Extrusion of the Soufrière of St-Vincent. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 14 (3-4):199-222.

Imbo, G., 1965. Catalogue of the active volcanoes of the world including solfatara fields, Part XVIII, Italy: International Association of Volcanology.

Keller, J., 1980 .The island of Vulcano: Soc. Italiana Min. Petr., 36, p. 368-413.

Lacroix, A., 1904. La Montagne Pelee et ses eruptions: Paris, Masson et Cie, 622 p.

Lander, J. F., Whiteside, L. S., and Lockridge, P. A 2002. A brief history of tsunami in the Caribbean Sea, Science of Tsunami Hazards, 20, 2, 57­94.

Lander James F., Whiteside Lowell S., Lockridge P A 2003. TWO DECADES OF GLOBAL TSUNAMIS 1982-2002. Science of Tsunami Hazards, Volume 21, Number 1, page 3.

Le Friant, A. 2001. Les destabilisations de flanc des volcans actifs de l'arc des Petites Antilles: origines et consequences, These de Doctorat, Universite de Paris VII, 377p.

Mader C. L., 2001. Modeling the La Palma Landslide Tsunami. Science of Tsunami Hazards, Volume 19, pages 150-170 (2001)

Mader, C .L. 2004. The Loihi Cone Collapse. In Numerical Modeling of Water Waves - Second Edition, CRC Press, pages 130-132.

Mangeney A., Heinrich F., Roche, R., Boudon, G., and J. L. CheminÎe. 2000. Modeling of debris avalanche and generated water waves. Application to real and potential events in Montserrat. Phys, Chem. Earth 25(9-11), 741-745.

Martin-Kaye, P.H.A. 1969. Summary of the geology of the Lesser Antilles. Overseas Geology & Mineral Resources 10:172-206.

Mercado, A. and McCann, W. 1998. Numerical simulation of the 1918, Puerto Rico tsunami, Natural Hazards, 18, 1, 57­76.

Mikumo, T. and Bolt, B.A. 1985. Excitation mechanism of atmospheric pressure waves from the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 81(2), 445-461.

Newhall, C.G. and Self, S. 1982. The volcanic explosivity index (VEI): An estimate of explosive magnitude for historical volcanism. Journal of Geophysical Research, 87(C2), 1231-1238.

Pararas-Carayannis, G. 1992. The Tsunami Generated from the Eruption of the Volcano of Santorin in the Bronze Age. Natural Hazards 5:115-123.

Pararas-Carayannis, G. 2002. Evaluation of the threat of mega tsunami generation from postulated massive slope failures of island stratovolcanoes on La Palma, Canary Islands, and on the Island of Hawaii, Science of Tsunami Hazards, Vol. 20, 5, 251­277.

Pararas-Carayannis, G. 2003. Near and Far-Field Effects of Tsunamis Generated by the Paroxysmal Eruptions, Explosions, Caldera Collapses and Slope Failures of the Krakatau Volcano in Indonesia, on August 26-27, 1883, Journal of Tsunami Hazards, Vol. 21, Number 4.

Pelinovsky E., Zahibo N., Dunkley P., Edmonds M., Herd R., Talipova T. , Kozelkov A., and I. Nikolkina, 2004. Tsunami Generated by the Volcano Eruption on July 12-13, 2003 at Montserrat, Lesser Antilles. Sciences of Tsunami Hazard Vol. 22, No. 2, pages 44-57.

Perret, F.A., 1937. The eruption of Mt. Pelee, 1929-1932: Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication, v. 458, 126 p.

Reid, H. F. and Taber, S. 1920. The Virgin Islands Earthquakes of 1867­ 1868, Bull. Seismol. Soc. America, 10, 9­30.

Robertson, R.E.A. 1992. Volcanic Hazard and Risk Assessment of the Soufrière Volcano, St. Vincent, West Indies. MPhil, Earth Sciences, The University of Leeds, Leeds.

Robertson, R.E.A. 1995. An Assessment of the Risk From Future Eruptions of the Soufrière Volcano of St. Vincent, West Indies. Natural Hazards 11 (2):163-191.

Rowley, K.C. 1978. Stratigraphy and geochemistry of the Soufriere Volcano, St. Vincent, West Indies. PhD, Seismic Research Unit, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine.

Scheffers A. and Kelletat D. 2004. New Evidence and Datings of Paleo-Tsunami Events in the Caribbean, Essen University (Germany). NSF Caribbean Tsunami Workshop. Puerto Rico March 30-31.

Univ. of West Indies 2001. Seismic Research Unit Website.

Seno T. and Yamanaka Y.1998. Arc stresses determined by slabs: Implications for back-arc spreading, Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Geopys. Res. Lett., 3227-3230.

Shepherd, J.B., Aspinall, W.P., Rowley, K.C., and others, 1979, The eruption of Soufriere volcano, St. Vincent, April-June, 1979: Nature, v. 282, p. 24-28.

Shepherd, J.B. 1989. Eruptions, eruption precursors and related phenomena in the Lesser Antilles. In Volcanic hazards: IAVCEI Proceedings in Volcanology 1, edited by J. H. Latter. Berlin, Heidelbery: Springer-Verlag.

Shepherd, J.B., and Sigurdsson, H., 1982. Mechanism of the 1979 explosive eruption of Soufriere volcano, St. Vincent: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 13, p. 119-130.

Shepherd, J.B., and W.A. Aspinall. 1982. Seismological studies of the Soufrière of St. Vincent, 1953-1979: Implications for volcanic surveillance in the Lesser Antilles. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 12:37-55.

Sigurdsson, H. 1981. Geological observations in the crater of Soufriere volcano, St. Vincent: University of the West Indies.

Sigurdsson H., Carey S and Wilson D. 2004. Debris Avalanche Formation at Kick'em Jenny Submarine Volcano. NSF Caribbean Tsunami Workshop. Puerto Rico March 30-31, 2004

Smith, A.L., and Roobol, M.J., 1990. Mt. Pelee, Martinique; A study of an active island-arc volcano: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America Memoir 175, 105 p.

Smithsonian Institution 1999. - Global Volcanism Program Kick-'em-Jenny Website, August.

Sparks, R. S. J., and L. Wilson. 1982. Explosive Volcanic-Eruptions .5. Observations of Plume Dynamics During the 1979 Soufrière Eruption, St Vincent. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 69 (2):551-570.

Tahira, M., Nomura, M., Sawada, Y., and Kamo, K. 1996. Infrasonic and acoustic-gravity waves generated by the Mount Pinatubo eruption of June 15, 1991. Fire and Mud. University of Washington Press, Seattle, 601- 614.

Tilling, Topinks, and Swanson, 1990, Eruptions of Mount St. Helens: Past, Present, and Future: USGS General Interest Publication.

Tomblin, J.F., H. Sigurdsson, and W.A. Aspinall. 1972. Activity at the Soufrière Volcano, St. Vincent, West Indies, between Oct. 31-Nov. 15, 1971. Nature 235 (5334):157-158.

Voight B. 2000. Structural stability of andesite volcanoes and lava domes Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences Vol 358, No 1770, Pages: 1663 - 1703 / May 15.

Weissert, T. P.1990. Tsunami travel time charts for the Caribbean, Science of Tsunami Hazards, 8, 2, 67­78.

Westercamp, D., and Traineau, H., 1983. The past 5,000 years of volcanic activity at M. Pelee, Martinique (F.W.I.); Implications for assessment of volcanic hazards: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 17, p.159-185.

Wright, T.L., and Helz, R.T., 1987. Recent advances in Hawaiian petrology and geochemistry, in Decker, R.W., Wright, T.L., and Stauffer, P.H., eds., Volcanism in Hawaii: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1350, v. 1, p. 625-640.

Young R. S., 2004. Small scale edifice collapse and tsunami generation at eastern Caribbean volcanoes; a standard phase of the volcanic cycle. NSF Caribbean Tsunami Workshop, Puerto Rico March 30-31.

Zahibo, N. and Pelinovsky, E. 2001. Evaluation of tsunami risk in the Lesser Antilles, Natural Hazard and Earth Sciences, 3, 221­231.

See also

PART 2 - Recent Tsunamis of Volcanic Origin in the Islands of the Lesser Antilles - Volcanic Mechanisms of Tsunami Generation

PART 3 - Tsunami Generation from Volcanic Sources

PART 5 - Factors Contributing to Volcanic Explosivity, Structural Flank Instabilities, Mass Edifice Failures, Debris Avanlanches and Tsunami Generation in the Caribbean Region

PART 6 - Volcanically-Induced Tsunami Generation in the Lesser Antilles Islands (Montserrat, Martinique, St. Vincent and Grenada)

 

Return to

Links to other Pages

Now available from Amazon, Barnes and Noble and other major bookstores. A signed by the author copy can be also ordered by contacting directly by email Aston Forbes Press.

Other Miscellaneous Non-technical Writings

(©) Copyright 1963-2007 George Pararas-Carayannis / all rights reserved / Information on this site is for viewing and personal information only - protected by copyright. Any unauthorized use or reproduction of material from this site without written permission is prohibited.
Web Site Created By Dr. George Pararas-Carayannis / Copyright © 2000. All Rights Reserved

Template Courtesy of "Budget Office & Facility Supply"

 THANK YOU FOR VISITING