2. Causes of Earthquakes
What are the causes
of earthquakes in California and around the world?
The Earth and Its
How Big is our earth?
/ How do we know what the earth's interior is like?
What is the earth's core made of? / What processes contribute
to the high temperatures in the interior of the earth? / What
is the earth's mantle?
What are the mantle's convection cells and currents?
How fast do convection currents move within the earth's mantle?
What is the "Mohorovicic Discontinuity"?
The Earth's Crust
and Forces Acting Upon It
How is the earth's
crust created? / How thick is the earth's crust?
How do convection currents in the earth's interior affect the
How do the forces within the earth's interior cause earthquakes
on its surface?
Where is the earth's crust most unstable?
Sea Floor Spreading,
Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift
How magnetic field
studies of the earth contributed to theories that help in our
understanding of earthquakes? / How are the rates of crustal
What is the theory of Plate Tectonics? / How do tectonic plates
move? How fast do tectonic plates move?
What is the theory of Sea Floor Spreading? / How do we know that
the ocean floor spreads? / How are mid-ocean ridges and ocean
volcanoes formed? / How are the great ocean floor fractures created?
Which are some of the best known great ocean floor fractures?
What is the theory of Continental Drift? / How do continents
float? / How do we know that the earth's continents drift? /
How fast are the continents drifting? / How are volcanoes, mountains
and other major geological features formed?
Is part of California
moving or drifting?
Destruction of the
How subduction destroys
the Earth's crust ? / What is the Benioff zone?
How are the deep ocean trenches formed?
What are earthquakes?
/ What would happen if there were no earthquakes on earth?
How do tectonic plate movements cause earthquakes?
Where do earthquakes occur? / Where do the great earthquakes
Are large earthquakes limited only to areas of subduction?
Which are the earth's major seismic belts? / Where is the Transhimalaian
Where is the Circum-Pacific seismic belt? / Why is the Circum-Pacific
Seismic Belt called the "Pacific ring of fire"? / What
are the causes of earthquakes along the Pacific Ring of Fire
? / Why does Japan experience so many destructive earthquakes?
What are the causes of large earthquakes in the Aleutian islands
and in Alaska?
Plate Tectonics and
How do the great tectonic
plates interact to the north of California?
Can Plate Tectonics be used to predict earthquakes?
What studies of tectonic plate interactions could help in predicting
Which was the most
devastating earthquake in history in terms of lives lost?
Which were the strongest earthquakes in the 20th century?
What was the great Tangshan Earthquake in China?
What are the Causes
of Earthquakes in California?
What tectonic processes
are responsible for earthquakes in California?
Why do earthquakes occur so frequently in California?
What is California's Transform Fault System?
How was the San Andreas Fault System created?
Do large earthquakes occur along the entire length of the San
How do the great ocean floor fractures relate to earthquake activity
California's Earthquakes - Fundamental Principles
What is seismology?
Is Seismology an old
science? / Who was the father of modern seismology? / When did
earthquake science begin in the U.S.? / Who were some of the
early American seismologists?
What was the significance of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake?
How comprehensive is seismic research in California?
What are some of the significant advances and challenges for
Faults and Faulting
What is a fault? /
What are the different types of faulting? / What kind of earthquake
faulting occurs in California? / How can hard rocks deform elastically
along a fault?
What is the "theory of elastic rebound"? / What is
fault creep? / How can fault creep be used to predict the magnitudes
of future earthquakes?
How frequently do
earthquakes occur around the world? / What Triggers Earthquakes?
What is the relationship of strain on a fault to earthquakes?
How is strain used to estimate the recurrence of earthquakes
How much strain was released by the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta
earthquake in California? / How reliable are strain measurements
in determining how soon earthquakes will strike again California?
How does earthquake energy travel? / What are seismic waves?
/ How are seismic waves generated? / What are "primary",
"compressional" or P-waves? / What are "secondary",
"shear" or S-waves? / What are "surface"
waves? / What is seismic wave refraction? / How do studies of
seismic waves help determine earthquake motions and fault slip?
How are earthquakes recorded? / How are earthquakes located?
What other methods exist for locating earthquakes?
What is earthquake
magnitude? / What is the difference between earthquake magnitude
and intensity? / What is the Richter scale? / How does earthquake's
energy release relate to magnitude? / What other methods are
used to measure earthquake energy release and size? / What is
the Seismic Moment of an earthquake? / How does the seismic moment
of an earthquake relate to its Richter magnitude?
How is earthquake depth determined?
What is earthquake intensity? / Is the intensity of an earthquake
the same everywhere?
How was earthquake intensity initially measured? / What was the
original Mercalli scale? What is the Modified Mercalli Intensity
scale? / What is an earthquake intensity map? What is an isoseismal?
the Big One
What will the ground
movements be like and how long will they last?
Will the shaking cause ground liquefaction?
What will happen to buildings?
Why and how buildings may fail?
What kind of noises may be expected?
Will light and other electrical phenomena appear before or after
the Big One strikes?
What kind of odors may be produced?
5. Can California's
earthquakes and the Big One be predicted?
How does earthquake
prediction differ from earthquake forecasting?
What are short, intermediate and long term earthquake predictions?
Who conducts earthquake prediction research in California?
What is the status of earthquake prediction research in California?
What are some of the methods used in earthquake prediction?
How reliable are studies of plate tectonics in earthquake prediction?
How reliable are studies of elastic deformation in predicting
major earthquakes and the Big One? / How reliable are the historical/statistical
probability methods of earthquake prediction in California? /
How reliable are overall earthquake predictions in California?
Have the Chinese been more successful in predicting big earthquakes?
What are some of the dangers of predicting the Big One in California?
Will earthquake prediction ever become a reality?
methods are used to predict earthquakes in California?
What are some of the
additional methods and instruments used for earthquake prediction
How are statistical
methods used to predict California earthquakes?
How is the recurrence
frequency of California earthquakes estimated?
How does earthquake clustering interfere with estimating the
recurrence frequency of California earthquakes?
How is the Seismic Gap Theory used in the statistical prediction
of California earthquakes?
measurements and observations are used to forecast or predict
Why are crustal deformation
studies important in earthquake prediction?
Which are some of the earthquakes precursor events that can be
measured to predict earthquakes? / What are the causes of earthquake
How reliable are earthquake precursor events in predicting earthquakes?
How will precursory phenomena help predict earthquakes in the
What is "Dilatancy" and why the crust of the earth
near a fault deforms before an earthquake?
How are changes in the tilt of the ground used to predict earthquakes?
Why are strain measurements made along active faults?
How are changes in the strain and slip along faults used in earthquake
How reliable are strain measurements in earthquake prediction?
Why are slip rate measurements made along active faults?
Why are fault creep measurements made? How is fault creep measured?
How are past earthquakes dated with use of slip rates?
Why are measurements of fault creep along active faults significant
in predicting earthquakes in California?
How are trees used to date earthquakes and measure past ground
movements along faults?
How is the water level of wells affected before and after an
How can wells act as seismometers to measure earthquake waves?
Why is hydrogen being monitored in the prediction of earthquakes?
How is radon gas used in earthquake prediction?
Can clouds be used in earthquake prediction?
What is the Load/Unload
Response Ratio (LURR) method of earthquake prediction?
Can animal behavior
be monitored to predict earthquakes?
How animal behavior
has helped in the prediction of some earthquakes in China?
How is animal behavior research in China expected to help in
of future earthquakes?
How can research in animal behavior help design sensitive seismic
that could be used in short term earthquake prediction?
How can animals be used in an operational earthquake warning
7. How is
California's earthquake risk determined and evaluated?
What are the earthquake
risk zoning categories? / How is earthquake risk determined?
How does the earthquake risk vary by location?
How are statistical techniques used in earthquake risk analysis?
How is earthquake risk mapped and zoned? / What is microzonation
of the earthquake hazard? / Why is it important to determine
and evaluate the earthquake risk in California?
Why is mapping of faults and studies of past earthquakes important
in evaluating the earthquake risk in California?
Which is the law that requires earthquake-resistant design and
construction for all public schools in California?
What are the Alquist-Priolo Act's criteria for developing seismic
zonation of the earthquake hazard in California?
How did the Loma Prieta earthquake help evaluation of seismic
How did the 1994 Northridge earthquake affect changes of the
Uniform Building Code?
Why is detailed mapping and zoning (microzonation) of the earthquake
risk critical for certain areas in California?
How do computer models help evaluate the earthquake risk?
8. The faults
of California - Do you live near a dangerous fault?
How was California's
Fault Zone formed?
How were California's faults created?
What types of faults exist in California?
What is the San Andreas Fault System?
Major faults of Northern
Northern San Andreas
Eureka and Cape Mendocino to Bodega
Bodega to Los Gatos (San Francisco and Bay segment); Los Gatos
What is the seismicity of the northern segment of the San Andreas
Major faults of Northern
Calaveras and Paicines Faults
Green Valley, Rodgers Creek, Maacama, Healdsburg, Rinconada,
Cordelia, West Valley, Concord, Antioch, and Alexander Valley
Green Valley Fault
Alexander Valley Fault
Fresh Water Fault
Rogers Creek and Healdsburg Faults
Pilarcitos, Seal Cove, San Gregorio and Hosgri Faults
Owens Valley Fault
Major faults of Southern
San Andreas Fault
- Cholame to Cajon Pass
San Andreas Fault -Cajon Pass to the Mexican Border
White Wolf Fault
San Jacinto Fault System (Glen Helen, Claremont, Casa Loma, Clark,
Coyote Creek, San Felipe Hills, Imperial, Superstition Hills
Santa Ynez Fault Zone (Santa Ynez, Mission Ridge, Mesa and Lavigia
Faults in the Los Angeles Area
Newport-Inglewood Fault Zone
San Fernando Valley Fault
Sierra Madre Fault Zone
San Fernando Fault (Sylmar and Tujunga segments)
Raymond Hill Fault
Northridge Hills Fault
9. The largest
historical earthquakes of California
in California from 1769 to 2000
Earthquake of 28 July
Earthquake of 8 December 1812
Earthquake of 21 December, 1812
Earthquake of 10 June 1836
Earthquake of June 1838
Earthquake of 19 January 1857 (The
Great Fort Tejon Earthquake)
Earthquake of 3 July 1861
Earthquake of 1 October 1865
Earthquake of 8 October 1865
Earthquake of 21 October 1868
Earthquake of 26 March 1872 (The
Great Owens Valley Earthquake)
Earthquake of 11 April 1885
Earthquake of May 1889
Earthquake of 24 February 1892
Earthquake of 19 April 1892
Earthquake of 30 March 1898
Earthquake of 22 July 1899
Earthquake of 25 December 1899
Earthquake of July 1902
Earthquake of 18 April 1906: (The
Great San Francisco Earthquake)
Earthquake of 19 September 1907
Earthquake of 1 July 1911
Earthquake of 22 June 1915
Earthquake of 7 October 1915
Earthquake of 21 April 1918
Earthquake of 31 January 1922
Earthquake of 29 June 1925
Earthquake of 20 August 1927
Earthquake of 4 November 1927
Earthquake of 6 June 1932
Earthquake of 10 March 1933 (The
Long Beach earthquake)
Earthquake of 16 May 1933
Earthquake of 2 October, 1934
Earthquake of 18 May 1940
Earthquake of 30 June 1941
Earthquake of 14 November 1941
Earthquake of 4 December 1948
Earthquake of 21 July 1952 (The
Kern County Earthquake)
Earthquake of 23 October 1955
Earthquake of 8 April 1968
Earthquake of 9 February 1971
Earthquake of 1 August 1975
Earthquake of 15 October 1979
Earthquake of 2 May 1983
Earthquake of 24 April 1984
Earthquake of 1 October 1987
Earthquake of 10 June 1988
Earthquake of 27 June 1988
Earthquake of 17 October 1989 (The
Loma Prieta Earthquake)
Earthquake of 28 June 1991
Earthquake of 17 August 1991
Earthquake of 25 April 1992
Earthquake of 28 June 1992
Earthquake of 17 January 1994 (The
Earthquake of 1 September 1994
Earthquake of 19 February 1995
What were the magnitudes, intensities and locations of the large
destructive earthquakes in California?
Fort Tejon Earthquake of 1857 - what is its significance?
The January 9, 1857
Fort Tejon Earthquake
What were the earthquake's
foreshocks and aftershocks?
What were the intensities of the ground motions?
What were the earthquake's rupture, displacements and other surface
What were the death toll and damages?
What was the significance of the 1857 earthquake for future destructive
earthquakes in the area?
Great San Francisco Earthquake of 18 April 1906 - What is its
The Great San Francisco
Earthquake of 18 April 1906
What were the earthquake's
rupture and ground displacements?
How strong were the ground motions and earthquake intensities?
How much destruction did the Great Fire Do?
How Quick and Effective were the Recovery Efforts in San Francisco?
What were the casualties and damages?
What is the significance of the Great San Francisco Earthquake
How did geologic conditions affect earthquake intensities?
Did the 1906 earthquake leave sufficient strain in the rocks
which may cause another destructive earthquake in the Bay area?
What caused the seismic quietness after the 1906 earthquake?
What were the effects of the 1906 earthquake on the subsequent
seismicity of the Bay Region and of Central California?
1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake - Was it the Big One?
Why is the 1989 Loma
Prieta earthquake significant?
How strong was the Loma Prieta earthquake?
What were the Loma Prieta earthquake's major aftershocks?
What were the intensities and ground motions?
What was unusual about the Loma Prieta's rupture, displacements
and other surface effects?
Did the Loma Prieta earthquake generate a tsunami?
How extensive was ground liquefaction in the Bay area?
What were the death toll and overall damages?
What was Loma Prieta earthquake's extent of destruction in the
How extensive was the earthquake's damage in San Francisco?
What happened at the Candlestick Park?
What happened at the Nimitz Freeway?
What happened at the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge?
What was the extent of damage in the region south of San Francisco?
What relief and recovery efforts were undertaken?
Was the Loma Prieta earthquake the long awaited Big One?
What is the significance of the Loma Prieta Earthquake for future
destructive earthquakes in the Bay Area?
How did the Loma Prieta event relate to past earthquakes?
What is Loma Prieta's significance for future destructive earthquakes
in the Bay area?
Northridge Earthquake of 1994 - What was learned from it?
The Earthquake of
17 January 1994 (Northridge Earthquake)
Why is the 1994 Northridge
What were the death toll and damages?
Which are the dangerous faults of San Fernando Valley?
What was the rupture of the fault that caused the 1994 Northridge
What was unusual about the 1994 Northridge earthquake's intensities
and ground motions?
Why valleys, like San Fernando, are more susceptible to the earthquake
What was learned from the 1994 Northridge earthquake's ground
motions, surface effects and damages?
How does the 1994 Northridge earthquake compare to the 1971 San
What retrofit programs and building code changes were established
as a result of the Northridge earthquake?
What are the implications of the Northridge earthquake for future
destructive events in the Los Angeles Metropolitan area?
California Earthquakes be Controlled or Prevented?
What type of man-made
earthquakes have been observed?
What do field and laboratory experiments indicate?
What research has been proposed for control of earthquakes in
What are some of the social and economic implications of earthquake
Will control of California earthquakes be feasible in the future?
15. California's Tsunami
Threat - Will the Big One generate a destructive tsunami?
What destructive tsunamis
have been in United States and worldwide?
Tsunami - Some Basic
What is a tsunami?
What is the origin and meaning of the word "tsunami"?
Is a tsunami the same thing as a "tidal wave"?
Is a tsunami the same thing as a "seismic sea wave"?
What are the causes of tsunamis?
Where are tsunamis more frequently generated?
How do earthquakes generate tsunamis?
How big are the earthquakes that generate tsunamis?
How volcanic explosions generate tsunamis?
How landslides generate tsunamis?
Can asteroids and meteorites cause tsunamis?
What is the height of a tsunami in the deep ocean?
How does tsunami energy travel across the ocean and how far can
tsunami waves travel?
How fast do tsunamis travel in the deep ocean?
Why cant' tsunamis be seen at sea or from the air?
What happens when a tsunami reaches the shore?
How high can tsunamis reach?
What is the tsunami runup?
What kind of earthquakes generate large tsunamis?
What determines how destructive a tsunami will be locally and
at distant shore?
The Tsunami Threat
How quickly will a
tsunami generated in Alaska or the Aleutian islands reach California?
What is the history of tsunamis in California?
How frequent are tsunamis in California?
What is the tsunami threat from local California earthquakes?
What kind of tsunami did the Cape Mendocino earthquake of April
25, 1992 generate?
Did the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in California generate a
What kind of tsunami did the Santa Barbara earthquake of November
4, 1927 generate?
What kind of tsunamis did the Santa Barbara earthquakes of 1812
What are some of the conflicting reports about the 1812 Santa
What is the tsunami threat in California from distant earthquake
What were the effects of the 1964 Alaska tsunami in California?
How was Crescent City affected by the tsunami waves of the 1964
great Alaska earthquake?
What is California's tsunami threat from an earthquake on the
Cascadia Subduction Zone?
How will California be affected by a tsunami originating from
an earthquake on the Cascadia Subduction Zone?
What is California's overall tsunami threat?
Will the Big One generate a destructive tsunami in California?
What is the International Tsunami Warning System?
How does the Tsunami Warning System work?
What are the capabilities and the limitations of the Tsunami
How are tsunami warnings disseminated in California?
How effective is the Tsunami Warning System in California?
in California Will The Big One Strike?
Why and how do scientists
study the faults where past big earthquake have occurred?
What kind of research is going on presently?
What does the geographical distribution of the larger earthquakes
on the San Andreas fault system indicate?
What do past earthquake clustering patterns and movements near
and away from the San Andreas fault suggest?
What does the absence of small earthquakes from the San Andreas
segments of the 1857 and 1906 events indicate?
Where are the present seismic gaps on the San Andreas fault system?
Where are seismic gaps in the Bay Area where additional earthquakes
What has been learned from measurements of ground movements?
What do past earthquake ground movements reveal?
What do measurements of aseismic creep imply?
What does the fault break of the 1857 earthquake suggest?
Where are the present locked segments of the San Andreas Fault?
What does the seismic quietness of the San Andreas segments of
the Carrizo Plain and the Mojave signify?
What does the higher level of seismicity in the Big Bend area
of the San Andreas reflect?
What is happening presently at the southern end of the 1857 earthquake
rupture of the San Andreas fault?
What do the differences in earthquake depths convey?
What was learned from the studies of the Palmdale uplift?
Where are the sites of future large earthquakes in Northern California?
Was the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake the one expected, or is there
another one coming?
Where are the sites of future large earthquakes in Southern California?
Where in California will the Big One most likely strike?
will the Big One strike?
How often do earthquakes
What is the global
frequency of earthquakes of any given magnitude?
What is the global frequency of larger earthquakes?
Can Plate Tectonics help estimate when earthquakes will occur
Why and how past seismic
activity is studied to determine when large earthquakes will
strike again California?
Why are past earthquakes
How are past earthquakes studied?
What do clues from past earthquakes reveal?
How are measurements of strain used to estimate when large earthquakes
will occur in the future?
Did the Parkfield Experiment help in the prediction of the Big
How often and where earthquakes can be expected in Northern California?
What does the pattern of renewed earthquake activity in Northern
When will moderate earthquakes occur again in the Bay Area?
Is a major earthquake highly likely to occur in Northern California?
What does the pattern of past earthquake activity in Southern
How often and where major earthquakes can be expected in Southern
Is a major earthquake highly likely to occur soon in Southern
Will the Big One Strike
Will small or moderate earthquakes proceed the Big One?
Will precursory events and phenomena herald the Big One's arrival?
When will the Big
How often and where
major earthquakes can be expected to strike along the San Andreas
What is the significance of the recent increase in earthquake
activity in the Bay Area?
Do studies of strain in Northern California indicate when the
Big One will strike?
What is the Probability of Occurrence of Major Earthquakes in
When will the Big
One strike Northern California and the Bay Area?
When will the Big
One strike Southern California?
The book includes
also a comprehensive Glossary and a list of Cities, towns and
localities that are in close proximity to major faults and will
be affected by earthquakes in the future.
THE BIG ONE - The
Next Great California Earthquake
is now available from Amazon, Barnes and Noble and other major
bookstores. Copies autographed by the author can be also ordered
by contacting directly by email Aston